Pure Appl. Chem., 2000, Vol. 72, No. 11, pp. 2083-2099
Temperature control modes in thermal analysis
Abstract: Now we can use several temperature control modes, for example, isothermal run including stepwise heating and cooling, constant rate heating (or cooling), temperature control for sample thermal history, sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA or controlled-rate thermal analysis, CRTA), temperature jump, rate jump, temperature modulation, and repeated temperature scanning. Their advantages and drawbacks are reviewed with some illustrative examples, especially for application to kinetic analysis. The combined use of these varieties of temperature control mode is recommended by showing examples. Temperature modulation and repeated temperature scanning are discussed in comparison with temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and common and analogous points are elucidated. In relation to this, the possibility of the imaginary part of the overall reaction rate constant in complex reactions is postulated. Finally, these modes are classified and tabulated from two viewpoints, and other possible modes are shown.