Pure Appl. Chem., 2006, Vol. 78, No. 7, pp. 1377-1387
Aminoboranes as new iminium ion generators in amination reactions
Abstract: The utilization of aminoborane derivatives in amination reactions such as Strecker-type aminative cyanation, Mannich-type reaction, and reductive amination is described. Bis(dialkylamino)cyanoboranes and bis(dialkylamino)boron enolates underwent the concurrent transfer of the amino group and either the cyano or the enoxy group from the boron to carbonyl carbon atom in their reaction with aldehydes, leading to the formation of α-amino nitriles and β-amino ketones, respectively. Bis(dialkylamino)borane derivatives that lack the additional nucleophilic groups on the boron atoms were found to serve as effective generators of iminium ions from aldehydes. In the presence of these aminoboranes, reactions of aldehydes with ketene silyl acetals or silyl enol ethers take place, giving Mannich-type products, i.e., β-amino esters and ketones, selectively. Using diisopropylamino-substituted boron compounds, which are designed as "universal" iminium ion generators, reactions of free sec-amines, aldehydes, and ketene silyl acetals proceed efficiently, giving β-amino esters in which the amino groups are derived exclusively from the free amines. The use of the universal iminium ion generator is also effective for reductive amination of aldehydes, in which NaBH4 is used as a hydride donor.