Pure Appl. Chem., 2002, Vol. 74, No. 9, pp. 1719-1730
Electrochemical tuning and mechanical resilience of single-wall carbon nanotubes
Abstract: Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are fascinating systems exhibiting many novel physical properties. In this paper, we give a brief review of the structural, electronic, vibrational, and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes. In situ resonance Raman scattering of SWNTs investigated under electrochemical biasing demonstrates that the intensity of the radial breathing mode varies significantly in a nonmonotonic manner as a function of the cathodic bias voltage, but does not change appreciably under anodic bias. These results can be quantitatively understood in terms of the changes in the energy gaps between the 1D van Hove singularities in the electron density of states, arising possibly due to the alterations in the overlap integral of π bonds between the π-orbitals of the adjacent carbon atoms. In the second part of this paper, we review our high-pressure X-ray diffraction results, which show that the triangular lattice of the carbon nanotube bundles continues to persist up to ∼10 GPa. The lattice is seen to relax just before the phase transformation, which is observed at ∼10 GPa. Further, our results display the reversibility of the 2D lattice symmetry even after compression up to 13 GPa well beyond the 5 GPa value observed recently. These experimental results explicitly validate the predicted remarkable mechanical resilience of the nanotubes.