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Pure Appl. Chem., 2007, Vol. 79, No. 10, pp. 1801-1829


Definitions of terms relating to the structure and processing of sols, gels, networks, and inorganic-organic hybrid materials (IUPAC Recommendations 2007)

J. Alemán1, A. V. Chadwick2, J. He3, M. Hess4, K. Horie5, R. G. Jones2, P. Kratochvíl6, I. Meisel7, I. Mita8, G. Moad9, S. Penczek10 and R. F. T. Stepto11

1 Campus Universitario de Tarifa, Las Palmas de G.C., Spain
2 University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK
3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
4 Universität Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
5 Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
6 Akademie věd České Republiky, Praha, Czech Republic
7 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany
8 University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
9 CSIRO, Clayton South, Victoria, Australia
10 Polish Academy of Sciences, Lódz, Poland
11 University of Manchester and UMIST, Manchester, UK

Abstract: This document defines terms related to the structure and processing of inorganic, polymeric, and inorganic-organic hybrid materials from precursors, through gels to solid products. It is divided into four sections - precursors, gels, solids, and processes - and the terms have been restricted to those most commonly encountered. For the sake of completeness and where they are already satisfactorily defined for the scope of this document, terms from other IUPAC publications have been used. Otherwise, the terms and their definitions have been assembled in consultation with experts in the relevant fields. The definitions are intended to assist the reader who is unfamiliar with sol-gel processing, ceramization, and related technologies and materials, and to serve as a guide to the use of standard terminology by those researching in these areas.